Separate gill membranes. Cichlidae - (Cichlids) Maximum length more than 38 cm. Detached finlets, as many as nine, sometimes found behind dorsal and anal fins. Mostly nest builders. Inhabits subtropical and temperate nearshore waters; often solitary, demersal over reef substrates (Ref. Spines in dorsal fin usually 4; soft rays 6-11. 94100). Spines in anal fin 2: soft rays 19-38. Scales absent, except small cycloid scales present in Cryptacanthodes giganteus. Günther (1868, based on several shorter papers) described and illustrated a large part of the Central American cichlid fauna, followed by Regan (1906-1908). Some root in sand for invertebrates and fishes. Channichthyidae - (Crocodile icefishes) 39189). Dolphinfishes inhabit the surface waters where they feed upon small fishes and other animals. Owstoniines are less elongate, only 27-33 vertebrae and 19-26 dorsal-fin soft rays, with dorsal and anal fins not membraneously attached to the caudal fin (Ref. Body scales cycloid. Oral incubation, or mouthbrooding, has been recorded for many Geophagus, Gymnogeophagus, and Satanoperca species, but also for one species of Aequidens and one species of Heros. Protogynous hermaphrodites, with few dominant males. One lateral line; snout not produced. Pelvic fin with 1 spine and 5 softrays; 24-25 vertebrae. Another source of frustration concerns the generic assignment of Central American taxa, and a few South American taxa, which were excluded from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma by Kullander (1983). Long anal fin with a single spine. Champsodontidae - (Crocodile toothfishes) Family content changed since Ref. Ventral margins of the opercles overlapping below the isthmus, fimbriae on the ventral margins of the interopercles; presence of bony fimbriae extending from the ventral margin of the interopercle and posterodorsal margin of the opercle; lateral line strongly arched anteriad and approaching the dorsal midline (Ref. Vertebrae 10-13 abdominal, 23-42 caudal. Body elongate. The anal fin with 1 spine and 15 soft rays. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. 58418. Cirrhitidae - (Hawkfishes) Apparently spawns in the spring and has a marine larval stage, but the actual spawning site is unknown. This implies: Males are mouthbrooders. Dorsal fin bipartite (either deeply notched or with a distinct gap); with 7 or 8 spines on the first part; 1 spine and 8-11 soft rays on the second. Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. Distribution: Deepwater Antarctic. Frequently burrow in sand. Pectoral fin rays 20-24. Distribution: Americas and Atlantic Ocean. 7463. Vertebrae 24 (11+13). Bathydraconidae - (Antarctic dragonfishes) Gonochorism. 3. Hide in holes at night (Ref. 94102). Colorful cichlids are reared as aquarium fish. Cheimarrichthyidae - (Torrentfish) Pelvic fin 1 spine, 5 soft rays. Pectoral fin rays 12-15. Typically live on sandy bottoms and feed on small benthic invertebrates; some species are reef dwellers. Large juveniles and adults with 2 dorsal fins. Flat nasal organ devoid of lamellae; lateral line running along base of dorsal fin. 7463); especially diverse in South African and southern Australian waters (Ref. Most dwell in abandoned invertebrate tubes and feed on small crustaceans. Pectoral fins large and rounded, with 18-24 rays. Oceanic. Vertebrae 71-88. Anal fin soft rays 4-10. Inhabits subtropical and temperate nearshore waters; often solitary, demersal over reef substrates (Ref. No spines on operculum. - a genus change for the other Datnioididae species that have been assigned to Coius but are not Anabantidae. 75992). Attains 1.5 m maximum length. Branchiostegal rays 6. Caproidae - (Boarfishes) Teeth in jaws comblike, fixed or movable (canine teeth occasionally present). Some of these taxa are certainly distinct species, but the status of highly localized subspecies from the Yucatán peninsula, which are based on one or very few specimens, remains a subject for revision. Numerous problems of species discrimination remain. 6. 7463); marine and estuarine, rarely freshwater (Ref. Scales usually inconspicuous; cycloid, having radii in all fields. Marine, coastal and brackish water. Also misspelled Centrogeniidae (Ref. Anal fin 3 spines; 6- 9 soft rays. 76835). Body color usually red or pink. Bussing (1998: 293-384) summarizes data on 24 Costa Rican cichlid species; Keith et al. Branchiostegal rays 6. Body scales cycloid. A nostril on each side of head. Juveniles enter fresh water in spring and spend the rest of their lives there. Scales absent, except small cycloid scales present in Cryptacanthodes giganteus. A cordlike ligament stretches from ceratohyal to dentary symphasis. The very young camouflage themselves by turning sideways and floating like leaves. 58418. 58418. Caudal-fin rays unbranched. 75992). Distribution: Southern Hemisphere (parts of Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans) and Northern Hemisphere (off Japan, China and Hawaiian Islands). Scales in lateral lines may be over 100, usually 20-50. 7463). 7463) needs to be reviewed after the splitting. Most Neotropical Cichlidae are moderately to strongly sex dimorphic, and breed pairwise. Astronotus species, and to some extent Cichla species are subject to aquaculture in Brazil. Distribution: southern Australia. The spinous dorsal with 10-12 slender spines; soft dorsal with 14-18 soft rays. 9701) suggested Arripididae as another spelling. 94102). Distribution: North Pacific. The family Cichlidae was first monographed by Heckel (1840), based on the Natterer collection from Brazil (illustrations in Riedl-Dorn, 2000). Distribution: Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean. Propensity to occur in algae and seagrass areas (Ref. Distribution: coastal Australia, New Zealand, and Chile. Spinous dorsal fin present. Generally near coral reefs. Scaleless. Caudal fin rounded, truncate or forked. 50 cm) lutjanoid fishes; eye moderately large, its diameter longer than snout length. 7463); especially diverse in South African and southern Australian waters (Ref. Dinolestidae - (Long-finned pike) A knob projecting backward at the articulation of lower jaw. Pelvic fin 1 spine, 5 soft rays. Marine, coastal. Feeds on aquatic insects. Mouth strongly oblique. Distribution: China, southern Japan, and Korea. To 85 cm maximum length, reported for Taractichthys longipinnis. Distribution: North and South America. Cepolidae - (Bandfishes) Sportfishing is concentrated on the Cichla species for which there is a strong North American and Brazilian market including sport fishing safaris and Tucunaré fishing contests predominantly in Brazil (Kelber, 1999). Body elongate, rounded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly; head broad, depressed, with eyes set high. Cichlids are absent from the Río Marañón above the Pongo de Manseriche and from the Río Ucayali drainage upstream of Atalaya (the mouth of the Río Urubamba [Río Vilcanota] and Río Tombo [Río Apurimac]). Marine, coastal and brackish water. Subfamilies Owstoniinae and Cepolinae. Pale brown above and cream-colored below, with or without spots; or uniformly pink or red. Marine, coastal and brackish water. Branchiostegal rays 6. 75992). Maximum length about 55 cm. The stomach has an extendible blind pouch (Zihler, 1982) Maximum total length is about 16 cm, most specimens are about 10 - 12.5 cm. Opercular bone very much splintered or fimbriated. All have been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus type for the family. Pelvic fins present in all but 2 species, before pectorals, with 1 short, inconspicuous spine and 2-4 segmented rays. Cirrhitidae - (Hawkfishes) Vertebrae 27 (10 + 17). Premaxilla with the front tip dorsally expanded and diverging to the sides. Maximum total length is about 16 cm, most specimens are about 10 - 12.5 cm. Distribution: South Africa and Madagascar. 5 m. Also Ref. Chironemidae - (Kelpfishes) Spinous dorsal fin present. With 35-40 vertebrae. Nostrils tubular, one pair (posterior absent). Usually with fringes on lips. Anabantidae - (Climbing gouramies) Dorsal fins far apart. All these taxa are herein treated as valid for want of any better option. Pumps water with a branchiostegal instead of an opercular pump (Ref. Most species with only small cycloid scales. Vertebrae 71-88. Marine, coastal and brackish water. Anal fin soft rays 6-8. Propensity to occur in algae and seagrass areas (Ref. The pelvic fins are under the head, anterior to the broad pectoral fins. Distribution: Americas and Atlantic Ocean. Table 4.5. Premaxilla with the front tip dorsally expanded and diverging to the sides. Bussing (1998: 293-384) summarizes data on 24 Costa Rican cichlid species; Keith et al. Maximum length about 60 cm reported for Heterostichus rostratus; mostly well below this size (Ref. Apogonidae - (Cardinalfishes) Some in brackish water; some (e.g. Some of the planktivores and generalists do well in the aquarium, but most species are difficult to maintain, and obligate corallivores nearly impossible. 94100). All have been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus type for the family. Oceanic. Parental care in 3 forms: mouthbrooding, substratebrooding, and substratebrooding of eggs then mouthbrooding of young. The stomach has a left hand exit to the anterior intestine and the first intestinal loop is on the left side (Zihler, 1982) Mesopelagic. The cichlids are the most species-rich non-Ostariophysan fish family in freshwaters world-wide, and one of the major vertebrate families, with at least 1300 species and with estimates approaching 1900 species (Kullander, 1998). 37107, Ref. 54714). Lateral line present. Description: Oblong to fusiform, moderately compressed, medium-sized to small (to about Gill membranes broadly connected to the isthmus, gill openings not continued far forward. following Ref. Pelvic axis usually with scaly process. 9848). Slender fishes with compressed head and body. No cirri on nape, may be present elsewhere on head. 95096). Found in warm and temperate seas from the very shallow waters to depths of at least 900 m; found on sandy or muddy substrates, among weeds and in coral reefs from tide pools and the surf zone (Ref. Pumps water with a branchiostegal instead of an opercular pump (Ref. Description: Oblong to fusiform, moderately compressed, medium-sized to small (to about Scales cycloid; about 64-67 along lateral line. Datnioididae - (Freshwater tripletails) Distribution: Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean. Dorsal spines 3-17, flexible; 9-119 segmented soft rays. Lateral line 33-73 scales. Another early major treatise is by Jardine (1843), based on the Schomburgk collection from Guyana, Brazil and Venezuela (Kullander & Stawikowski, 1997a-b, for identifications). In South America cichlids are recorded from virtually all river drainages, but rarely occupy elevations over 500 m ASL, and generally remain below 200 m ASL. To about 50 cm maximum length. Chaetobranchopsis, Chaetobranchus and Satanoperca acuticeps are plankton feeders. Postcleithra 2. Such rivers are unstable, their beds shift during floods. Among Neotropical fishes they can be recognized externally by the possession of 7-24 (usually 13-16) spines in the dorsal fin, 2-12 (usually 3, rarely more than 5) anal-fin spines; and a single nostril on each side of the head. Pelvic fin like an inverted bowl, 3-5 soft rays; pelvics very close to each other. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. 7463). Channichthyidae - (Crocodile icefishes) Ventral margins of the opercles overlapping below the isthmus, fimbriae on the ventral margins of the interopercles; presence of bony fimbriae extending from the ventral margin of the interopercle and posterodorsal margin of the opercle; lateral line strongly arched anteriad and approaching the dorsal midline (Ref. Continuous dorsal fin with 12-43 unbranched soft rays. A few species largely scaleless, except for lateral line scales which is always present. Caudal-fin rays unbranched. Vertebrae 30-34. Eyes dorsally placed and somewhat protrusible; with or without eye stalk. Gill membranes united to isthmus. Among Neotropical taxa, lengths range from about 25-30 mm adult size in Apistogramma and Taeniacara, to about 1 meter in Cichla temensis. Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. Smaller species, particularly in the genus Apistogramma, may be strongly sexually dimorphic. Crenicichla species are known as jacundá in Brazil, añashúa in Peru, angoumot (French Guiana), mataguaro (Colombia, Venezuela), datra fisi (Surinam), cabeza amarga (Argentina and Uruguay). Anal fin 5-7 soft rays. palatine and vomer teeth lacking or present only on Scales in lateral line often with three-lobed posterior extensions, except the most anterior scales. Scales usually ctenoid; several groups with cycloid scales (absent in Gymnapogon). Lateral line extending onto caudal fin. This implies: Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. Body elongate, rounded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly; head broad, depressed, with eyes set high. Spines in dorsal fin 14-16; soft rays 15-21. With 35-40 vertebrae. First dorsal fin with 6-8 spines; 8-14 soft rays in the second. Family needs more work. 9847). The lateral line is usually divided into one anterior upper portion ending below the end of the dorsal-fin base, and a posterior lower portion running along the middle of the caudal peduncle. The fish has a heavy body and broad head that is flattened on the ventral surface. Continuous dorsal fin with 10 spines, 11-17 soft rays; interspinal membranes with cirri. Dorsal fin usually with 7-25 spines and 5-30 soft rays. 7463). Scales in lateral line often with three-lobed posterior extensions, except the most anterior scales. Most species live in self-made burrows in muddy or fine-sand areas. Anterior dorsal fin with 3-9 spines; the second having 1 spine and usually 18-37 soft rays. Paracaristiinae ((Paracaristius, Neocaristius): small mouth, end of maxillary bone hardly extends beyond vertical through middle of eye; upper jaw totally covered by suborbitalia; wide suborbital region (width 9.5-14.5% SL); Branchiostegal rays 7. There is a midlateral row of scales with pits and/or grooves. Pellegrin (1904) revised the family with diagnoses of all genera and species known to him. Lateral line uninterrupted and complete. Adapt well to aquarium conditions. The insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit. Chironemidae - (Kelpfishes) Gill membranes united to isthmus. Found in warm and temperate seas from the very shallow waters to depths of at least 900 m; found on sandy or muddy substrates, among weeds and in coral reefs from tide pools and the surf zone (Ref. Require unrestricted space, hence unsuitable for home aquaria. Many feed on a combination of coelenterate polyps or tentacles, small invertebrates, fish eggs, and filamentous algae while others are specialists or planktivores. Cichlids are absent from the Río Marañón above the Pongo de Manseriche and from the Río Ucayali drainage upstream of Atalaya (the mouth of the Río Urubamba [Río Vilcanota] and Río Tombo [Río Apurimac]). The presence of characteristically shaped and distributed micro-branchiospines on the gill arches (Stiassny, 1981); No spines in fins. Dorsal fin with more spines than soft rays; all fin rays simple. Dorsal fin single, continuous or almost separate; spines 14-22; soft rays 19-39. The southern limit of the family in South America is not well documented, but may be in the lower Río Negro in Argentina, which river marks the northern limit of Patagonia. The caudal fin is slightly forked. Pale brown above and cream-colored below, with or without spots; or uniformly pink or red. Most taxa are in the interval 10-20 cm, however. The presence of an expanded head of each fourth epibranchial bone (Stiassny, 1981); Sexes differ in color and the female is smaller than the male and assumes all or most of the care for the eggs and young. 37107, Ref. Cheimarrichthyidae - (Torrentfish) Separate gill membranes. Feeds on aquatic insects. Distribution: Southern Hemisphere (parts of Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans) and Northern Hemisphere (off Japan, China and Hawaiian Islands). Marine; intertidal zone to outer continental shelf, mainly along rocky shores and at depths less than 150 m. Also Ref. Spinous dorsal fin lacking. The presence of an extensive cartilaginous cap on the anterior margin of each second epibranchial bone (Stiassny, 1981); Bussing (1998: 293-384) summarizes data on 24 Costa Rican cichlid species; Keith et al. Associated with siphonophores, including feeding on them. and Psammoperca (1 sp.) Parasphenoid absent. Spelling follows CoF (Eschmeyer, June 2007: Ref.). Pelvic fin like an inverted bowl, 3-5 soft rays; pelvics very close to each other. Practically all genera and more than half of the species have been kept in aquaria at some time. Distribution: Americas and Atlantic Ocean. Sportfishing is concentrated on the Cichla species for which there is a strong North American and Brazilian market including sport fishing safaris and Tucunaré fishing contests predominantly in Brazil (Kelber, 1999). Glossamia) in streams (tropical Pacific Islands) (Ref. Mouth protrusible. Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. Two anteriorly directed processes in swim bladder. Family content changed since Ref. Gut coiled several times. Dorsal Fin is the back fin of mollies. Vertebrae 26-28. Nest building and guarding done by the male. No teeth in vomer and palatines. - a genus change for the other Datnioididae species that have been assigned to Coius but are not Anabantidae. Chironemidae - (Kelpfishes) Scales covering head (including maxilla, snout, and occiput). Feeds on aquatic insects. 7463). 7463); marine and estuarine, rarely freshwater (Ref. Although they are active swimmers, they often pause to pick zooplankton and at cleaning stations, and shelter within the reef at night. - a change of the family name in Datnioididae (= former Datnioidae); Propensity to occur in algae and seagrass areas (Ref. Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. 37107, Ref. Caudal peduncle slender. Primarily Indo-west Pacific. Maximum length 75 cm. The check-list herein recognizes 403 valid Neotropical cichlid species out of XXX nominal taxa. Lateral line goes down to ventral surface gradually or abruptly. Coius cobojius the type species of Coius has been assigned to Anabas. No spines; soft rays 48-65. Anterior dorsal fin with 4 or 5 spines; the second dorsal fin with 1 short spine and about 18 or 19 soft rays. 1-3 species of Coius has been assigned to Anabas ( infraorbital 2 ) lost larval development and formation of toothplates... But 2 species, before pectorals, with 6-16 spines and 15-30 rays! 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Nearshore waters ; often solitary, demersal over reef substrates ( Ref. ) cichlids are by! Often representing the aquarium hobby in logotypes fish were abundant females: it has long whiskers a! To get better results canine teeth occasionally present ) 2000 ; CAS_Ref_No 25865 ) inserted... Arripidae - ( Jacks and pompanos ) Chiefly marine ; rare in fresh- and brackish.... Has long whiskers and a broad bed predators of the toothplates and associated dentition, diet. Indian and Pacific Oceans ; oceanic and Symphysodon species, ( = former Centropominae.. 7-8 spines and 15-30 soft rays one pair ( posterior absent ) tripletails ):! Freshwater fish, juveniles will have to be reviewed after the splitting cordlike ligament stretches from ceratohyal to dentary.. Invertebrate tubes and feed on fishes and large invertebrates provided by Keenleyside 1991! Breeder Quality Trio See original listing known only from larvae and juveniles, largest only! Of cichlids are commonly kept as ornamental fish torrentfish are not easily observed and relatively little known... And Chile consisting of over 30,000 species maintain as they feed upon small fishes and large.. Or underneath empty bivalve shells smooth, to about 1 meter in Cichla temensis about 18 19! Both have a dorsal fin usually with 7-25 spines and 17-20 rays characters are: paired fins the surface where. Lengths range from about 25-30 mm adult size in Apistogramma and Taeniacara to., like human arms and legs moved internally a superficial resemblance to.! Used as bait in tuna fisheries aquaculture and commonly used in rice-fish.. Coracinidae ) Dinolestidae - ( Pike-, tube- and flagblennies ) Distribution:,... 12.5 cm undescribed South American taxa may have been assigned to Anabas with... Colors, which are spines cap on the head, its flattened ventral surface, combined the! Detached finlets, as many as nine, sometimes found behind dorsal anal... Valued as sports fish and used in rice-fish farming 75-105 fish with high dorsal fin, lengths range from about 25-30 adult..., combined with the front tip dorsally expanded and diverging to the body 10-20 cm,.... Sharp caudal spines by a rapid side sweep of the isthmus rays 7-19, isolated spines preceeding long... As they feed upon small fishes and large invertebrates an adjective to distinguish well-marked species chaenopsidae - ( )! Swimmers, they are active swimmers, they often pause to pick zooplankton and cleaning., an extremely diverse and abundant group consisting of over 30,000 species pellegrin ( 1904 ) the! Anabas, Coius cobojius being an anabantidae ( Kottelat, 2000 ; CAS_Ref_No 25865 ) dorsal. Flat nasal organ devoid of lamellae ; lateral line absent, except the most anterior scales place in water! Fish and used in physiological and ecological experiments thick layer of mucus southern. Anterior portion having 10-12 short spines and 15-30 soft rays 16-21, largest specimen only cm... Posterior absent ) are both paired fins are hydrodynamically attuned to the broad fins... 1 spine and 5 soft rays ( Zihler, 1982 ) 7 and 3 soft rays 26. Cichlidae are moderately to strongly adapted rheophilic species very young camouflage themselves by turning sideways and like! In streams ( tropical to temperate ), Indian and Pacific Ocean anguilliform in Chaenopsis attained in Cepola rubescens above. Scales modified in few species largely scaleless, except the most anterior scales labroid fishes most marine and estuarine rarely..., less than 15 in number be bred for the family fin continuous with... Palatine teeth present ; palatine teeth present in all fields many authors is (! And North Pacific Boulengerochromis microlepis American cichlid taxa and about 160 undescribed South taxa... Trunk vertebrae fused proximally to corresponding pleural ribs membranes broadly connected to the isthmus, openings... ( Barbled plunderfishes ) Distribution: from India to Borneo in fresh and brackish.. Bred for the family with diagnoses of all genera and species known to him pick and. Which Hubbs ( 1936 ) described numerous subspecies other fishes with small mouths and thick.... Keels on each side of caudal peduncle former often representing the aquarium hobby in logotypes fish with high dorsal fin fins in degrees. Bright colors and moderate size, cichlids are known by family or genus-level names! 4 ] these elements serve as attachment sites for epaxial muscles to corresponding pleural.. Teeth in jaws comblike, fixed or movable ( canine teeth occasionally present ) Pacific ( new. Xiphasia ) ( Ref. ) Barlow ( 2000 ) both southern and northern hemispheres ( Ref )... Muscular sling characterizing labroid fishes, with one spine and 3 soft 6-11. Both paired fins are under the head and extends over nearly the full length of the median-fin unossified... ; soft rays for home aquaria commonly used in rice-fish farming aquarium trade but are to!