The fall harvest should be made only if adequate herbage is present to offset the cost of harvesting. Nitrogen (N) is essential for amino acid and protein production. Per Acre (LBS.) Kayseri) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cv. It can also be seeded with an end-gate seeder (or fertilizer spreader) and dragged. The difference in dry matter yield between common red clover and the best certified variety in the 1993 Kentucky Red Clover Variety Test Summary was almost 10,000 pounds per acre over the life of the stand (Figure 1). Arrowleaf clover is best adapted to well-drained, sandy soils and needs a soil pH > 6.0. per acre. The soil should be rolled after sowing to increase soil moisture contact with the seed. In soils with a pH below 6.0, adding lime is essential to make the soil less acidic and to improve red clover's nitrogen-fixing activity. Potato Leafhopper* Vigor,** Rosemount Grand Rapids Variety Injury, 7/14/03 5/1/03 1997-98 2000 2003 Variety Seeding 2017 Seeding 2018 2018 2019 2 Yr 2019 Cardinal — — — 4.5 Cinnamon Plus 5.5 4.2 9.7 4.3 Diadem Red When you mix it with grass, the rate drops to 8 lbs. The yield is spread over 2-3 cuts per year. 12 lbs / acre Barduro is a persistent red clover named for its hardiness and durability. With proper management, you can expect these varieties to persist for two to three years after the establishment year. “Farmers should make sure they purchase tested and more recently developed varieties of named red clover, and it would be best if the varieties were certified,” says Smith. Why do we need this? ÊRẊLÚO=æ¸ñ¸Û+Šó2Nßa›—^et|¼ãÞæÁÇøœ8¦ûfà¨wÜfRg,-#9¤°RƒÀà^NÈÞ©ÉÛE*”ŒÉ‚› NÒwrðqöf5⡈šäCW)Ý!Ƣŧ$àæuðúƁ}” E§žo…pùWŠIMQ'&R €­R¦ÜG1ÚúCH«ã6¼âOŽü¼Åãpzq—Ño6§U)~K¢”P‚²q¤…Ý7Ì{xð ÔÜã;¼8ä“뤵ޞƒm±Yl”:E±R‹›ý'yÌ1ÜG€;|¢ƒâO(pSo½Ëå°»dïã÷!’¹T¡Ýå8qãjø¯ї¯§ƒïzæ°dú¹ùÒu=Ig¿À?ºpmìÜÆ´5Ey›ËHɉÌéXÁ­’…øÚßäf¦ä_ý¤õܕ~râ‚T²õz÷å?ßÅ!$i0…%¯FÂn»¶7XôrYÖ+)xܗY@ðÕçIÞ];˜Ñü2x:8*àîŸ|UŠ$Ï% ($ù< BÏöZ»)Gø´E. White clover should be seeded at only 2 -3 pounds per acre because of the large number of The usual yield of red clover is from 4 to 6 bushels of seed per acre. The highest Table 1. Quality and yield enhanced with red clover Good disease resistance Red clover will enhance the protein in the crop Sowing rate: 14kg per acre. Keep in mind local conditions and your experience as a producer when using this information. Under Pennsylvania weather conditions, however, difficulty drying the herbage enough for safe baling has interfered with its widespread use. Soil tests are required for proper determination of soil nutrient availability. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is grown throughout the northeastern United States for forage and is used in rotations for soil improvement. Establishing with a forage grass will decrease red clover's curing time. Fluid seeding requires special equipment; therefore, a custom applicator is recommended. Seeding rates above these levels increase forage yields slightly, but are not economically justifi ed. However, excess N fertilizer also reduces nodulation and substitutes for atmospheric N that would have been fixed by the nodule. 6kg per acre - 15kg per ha. It is characterized by rapid spring growth and low winterhardiness, which contributes to its short-lived nature. This harvest timing is a compromise between red clover yield and quality. To facilitate seed production and between-row weed control, it is desirable to plant white clover in spaced rows instead of solid stands. It is very well suited for use as the forage legume in short rotations with corn. Varieties resistant to both northern and southern anthracnose and powdery mildew are recommended for use throughout the state. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. In a study in Wisconsin, red clover fixed enough nitrogen to supply the equivalent of 160 pounds per acre of nitrogen fertilizer. An experiment was conducted in order to investigate hay yield and nitrogen harvest in binary smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss cv. )Wuú`p³[çrt>5@>¼ Typical silage analysis has a dry matter of 30%, a crude protein of 19%, a D-value of 72 and an ME of 12MJ. ‘Duration’ red clover @ $2.18/lb X 9 lbs/acre =$19.62/acre It cost $5.22 more per acre to seed the ‘Vernal’ alfalfa. moth red clover, the highest yield was obtained at the full bloom stage. View our privacy policy. INSECT POLLINAnON Red clover must be cross-pollinatedto set seed. However, newer red clover varieties may tolerate three harvests during the summer and an additional fall harvest. Although bumblebees and other wild bees are very effective Sowing too deep will reduce the germination dramatically. 2 Established red clover stands should be harvested at prebloom or early bloom. Lateral roots arising from the tap root are concentrated mainly in the upper 5 inches of the soil. Red clover can be no-till seeded and is the easiest legume to establish using this method. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community, Download PDF Save For Later Print Purchase Print. Harvesting the oats early for silage is recommended because this will greatly reduce competition with the red clover. )&>|O}ã Look for good disease resistance and persistence in a red clover variety. If Arrowleaf clover is the only clover in a Plant about 9 lbs of seed per acre straight or 2 - 5 lbs per acre in a mix. When the red clover makes up less than 30 percent of the clover-grass mix, apply 30 or 50 lb of N per acre on sandy or clay soils, respectively. In the hay cutting trial at the Auburn Extension Research Center in Crossville, Alabama–during their worst drought in 25 years–Barduro was Established red clover stands should be harvested at prebloom or early bloom. The benefits of establishing clover in grass pasture are well-known. Look for good disease resistance and persistence in a red clover variety. Plant white clover seed at 1 to 3 pounds PLS per acre in 20 to 24 inch rows. Red clover quality does not decline as rapidly with maturity as does alfalfa quality. Several of the red clover varieties marketed in Pennsylvania have been bred for better persistence. It is a vigorous establisher and good yielder in the establishment year. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. Seed yield of forage legume seed crops has increased over time in the Willamette Valley (Figure 2). In addition, the third harvest during early September will help maintain better stands the following harvest season. Row Crop Realistic Yield Potential Crop Yield Units Realistic Yields/Acre Corn (grain) bushels 100-250 Corn (silage) wet tons 12-18 Cotton bales 1-3 Peanuts lbs 3,200 Rice bushels 144 -164 Red clover biomass was 1.9% N in the fall and contained 61 to 96 N pounds per acre (Figure 1). Refer to the current Penn State Forage Trial Report for red clover variety performance and resistance information. Leaf loss, as the plants of mammoth red clover approached maturity, apparently accounted for an actual decrease in the yield of dry matter. Yields Double Cut - 200 lb/ ac average, 500 lb/ac high yield Single Cut - 300 lb/ ac average, 500 lb Red clover for pasture renovation Red clover is an excellent choice for seeding in grass sods. Grass seed in varying combinations will make up the remaining weight. Red clover is usually drilled with a spring grain cover crop using the "grass seed box" on the drill. Starter fertilizer applications up to 20-60-20 lb per acre may benefit red clover seedings. However, intake by the consuming animal is generally greater for alfalfa than red clover. For example, for every 8 lbs. However, red clover is more difficult to cure for hay than other legumes. Unlike alfalfa, red clover will grow moderately well in slightly acid soils (Table 1). With proper management, you can expect these varieties to persist for two to three years after the establishment year. Alfalfa 60 10-20 Medium Red Clover 60 10-15 Mammoth Red 60 8-12 Alsike Clover 60 8-10 Ladino Clover 60 2-8 Yellow Blossom Sweet 60 5-8 Birdsfoot Trefoil 60 5-10 Grasses Per BU. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. A lower nitrogen contribution is more common, however. Total yields from the seeding year and per cut … 2018 yields of red clover averaged 4.83 and ranged from 4.32 to 5.07 tons per acre. µ8De@$’“öJé?O þò•J$Œ‹ß‚Ïn´Á쯩©Nµ0;zB÷¾'¹-qÿ䖑äýê§ú µûíîýíå¥uiy›ê$%†"¦>ê‚+=]Ñ;»Û$cÜ71þw ÑÉí F‹Õl¦TÕ¯. Tohum Islah) mixtures with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Red clover should be frost seeded at 15 to 20 lbs. Each situation has special requirements that should be considered. For a first­ time grower, it is wise to plan for a low yield (1-2 bu) rather than higher seed yields. Refer to the current Penn State Forage Trial Report for red clover variety performa… Red Clover Variety Trial Results 2010-2019 k Download excel file below to view trial results with cuttings. £3.92/Kg £47.04/Acre £117.60/Hectare As a practical example 6 round bales (600kgs in weight) per acre can be achieved and 3 cuts would be expected from an autumn sowing. Seed yields range from 60-300 kg/ha (1-5 bu/acre) depending on the season and management. Red clover, a short-lived perennial, usually produces two or three hay crops per year. per acre. This harvest timing is a compromise between red clover yield and quality. In the spring, red clover biomass was 3.9% N and contained 31 to 131 N pounds per acre. Red clover can be established as a pure stand, with or without a companion crop, seeded with forage grass, or sod-seeded into a grass sod to improve the existing stand. Tohum Islah) in Erzurum, Turkey for 5 years between 1991 and 1995. Use of herbicides may be necessary when direct seeding red clover without a companion crop. Frost seeding is When sowing red clover by itself, the seeding rate is 10 to 12 lbs. If oats are harvested for grain, the straw should be removed so that it will not shade or suppress the red clover. of red clover seed you need 6 lbs. Traditionally, three annual harvests are made in most of Pennsylvania. This method involves broadcast seeding of clov… Red clover should be top dressed annually with fertilizer (using soil testing as a guide for determining fertilizer requirements) as long as the plant numbers are sufficient for economic production. Clover seed is small and should be broadcast or drilled a shallow depth (not more than 10mm). Initial harvest 60-70 days after seeding and subsequent harvest on a 30-35 day interval will generally allow for three harvests during the seeding year. When grown on poor soil and under unfavorable conditions, the yield may be less than this, while on the best of soils with a favorable season the yield may run Varieties resistant to both northern and southern anthracnose and powdery mildew are recommended for use throughout the state. Growth habit varies from erect to prostrate. However, maximum yields are obtained when soil pH is 6.0 or higher. In Virginia and other temperate regions, the simplest way to establish new clover into permanent pasture is through frost seeding. ü£‚¯ŽÖDÑv‡9@°»‡j7º‚Ã/,m¯§-Lz=©³v#Œx9\"‡:Á%ö÷mvRÒè8}ÇÕAtoÐ6Qé_ẍ́µ³lmå}ÊkÕ2"-2£ˆœ¢8ÚJõŒÁ³Å°ÙNÙwÙ«ÖàÈ*ȳm°î U6c]*QÍuzÆì¥. They can include increased forage yield, improved forage quality, reduced nitrogen fertilizer costs, dilution of toxic fescue, and good livestock performance. Growing red clover for silage production circumvents that problem. Red clover quality is comparable with alfalfa quality under similar harvest schedules (Table 3). Prepared by Marvin H. Hall, assistant professor of agronomy. Soil test recommendations that exceed this amount should be incorporated into the seedbed prior to planting. Numerous stems with large trifoliate leaves arise from the crown region each year. Successful establishment of red clover by the fluid seeding technique (planting in a carrier of water or fertilizer solution) depends on preparing a firm and fine seedbed prior to seeding and cultipacking after seeding. However, a larger portion of the forage will be red clover when seeded without the companion crop. of orchard grass. This more aggressive harvest management in the seeding year than has traditionally been implemented provides greater forage and nutrient yields and has not negatively affected yield in the year after establishment. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Yield (lb DM/acre) tall fescue + 60 lbs N/acre 2975 tall fescue + white clover 3155 tall fescue + white clover + red clover + annual lespedeza 3860 Adapted from: H. Fribourg. Clover can be difficult to establish in permanent pasture, though, and this obstacle may limit greater adoption by producers. The seeding rate for Arrowleaf clover is 5-8 lbs per acre if drilled or 8-10 lbs per acre broadcast. Two pounds of white clover and 4 pounds of red clover per acre broadcast the last two weeks of February should provide an Preinoculated seed should be kept in a cool, dark place to optimize survival of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Agdex 122/15-1 Red Clover Seed Production This publication is a guide for red clover seed production. Best clover stands result if oats are seeded at about 1.5 to 2 bushels per acre. Cutting red clover at bud stage results in lower yield per cut than at 20% or 40% bloom stage of maturity. This means a longer period over which high-quality forage can be harvested. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement, CP = crude protein, DDM = digestible dry matter. 19 RED CLOVER Dry-matter yield of red clover, in tons dry matter per acre, seeded at two locations. This harvest schedule will not allow red clover to reseed itself but will minimize the occurrence of black patch disease and optimize yield and quality. RED CLOVER 2 YEAR SILAGE LEY £3.92 High yield silage production with improved sugar and protein content. Red clover direct seeded in the spring without a companion crop will yield less total forage than when seeded with a companion crop to be harvested as a forage. Red clover silage, if properly harvested and stored, provides a high-quality forage. An annual Nitrogen fixation of 150-200 kg/ha is achievable from swards with a high red clover content. Red clover seeded into fescue sods has increased yields about 35 percent above those … Red clover has a thick tap root that grows to a length of 24-36 inches. Direct seedings of red clover can be made by broadcasting, band seeding, or fluid seeding. With red clover hay worth $80 a ton, you”re looking at an extra $80 to $240 per acre in yield the third year. Four cuttings were taken in 2018. It provides nitrogen for the grass and is excellent quality summer grazing. per acre. Tennessee Farm and Home Science. Based on current entries in the Michigan Hay Sellers List maintained by Michigan State University Extension, I am assuming a value of $95/ton dry matter for both types of hay. Traditionally, three annual harvests are … Nutrients should be added to the soil on the basis of a soil test. Small ovoid, pinkish, nitrogen-fixing nodules can be found on the lateral roots if the plant is actively incorporating atmospheric nitrogen into protein nitrogen. A study in Pennsylvania showed that a one-year-old red clover stand (without harvest) contributed 70 pounds of nitrogen per acre to the first corn crop following it, while there was a benefit of 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre for the second corn crop grown one year later. Crops Information Table 2. In general, dry matter accumulation is at its highest by … JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Best establishment occurs when red clover is not planted deeper than ¼ inch. For additional information about nitrogen-fixing bacteria or the inoculation process, see Inoculation of Forage and Grain Legumes. Dry matter yield, in tons per acre, of red clover varieties seeded in Rosemount ( Dakota County). The use of chemical drying agents and hay preservatives may allow you to make red clover hay successfully under Pennsylvania's rainy conditions. has beed seen with seeding of single cut Red Clover with a cereal cover crop in alternating rows, with seed production in year 2. Early spring seeding in winter grains or grass pastures when the soils are honeycombed from frost also has been successful. Atmospheric N is captured (fixed) and converted into plant N by well-nodulated plants. Spring-seeded red clover can be harvested three times during the seeding year if growing conditions are favorable. Red clover is a short-lived perennial adapted to wetter, lower-pH soils than alfalfa. Benefits of red clover • Red clover is high yielding with yields of 12 to 16 t DM/ha achievable when grown with ryegrass. Red clover should be seeded at a rate of 10 to 12 lb per acre in a pure stand and 6 to 8 lb per acre when seeded with a forage grass (Table 2). three times per year. competition from the clover during the fall and winter, then seed the clover in mid- to late February. Several of the red clover varieties marketed in Pennsylvania have been bred for better persistence. Seed no more than ½ inches deep. On acid soils with pH less than 5.5, nodulation and N fixation are suppressed and fertilizer N should be supplied for vigorous growth. Red and white clover yields have roughly doubled since the mid-1970s. perfect, seed 6 pounds of red clover per acre, if they are average seed 8, and if conditions are below average seed 10 pounds per acre. 1978. • It converts atmospheric Nitrogen into a plant usable form. To ensure adequate nodulation, red clover seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium trifolii bacteria and a sticking agent just before seeding. Seeding red clover in the spring (April to early May), alone or with a spring oat companion crop in a conventionally prepared seedbed, is common. Red clover is a short-lived perennial. 107:16. Increase forage yields slightly, but are not economically justifi ed to view Trial with... Legume seed crops has increased over time in the fall and contained 31 131... Be no-till seeded and is excellent quality summer grazing seeding and subsequent harvest on a day... More than 10mm ) 1 to 3 pounds PLS per acre straight or 2 - 5 lbs per acre benefit! 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Results 2010-2019 k Download excel file below to view Trial Results 2010-2019 k Download file... ¼ inch its widespread use notified when we have news, courses, events... Special requirements that should be harvested at prebloom or early bloom by broadcasting, band seeding, fluid! Present to offset the cost of harvesting the summer and an additional fall harvest should be into! Matter per acre in 20 to 24 inch rows harvest during early September will help provide. A short-lived perennial, usually produces two or three hay crops per year obtained at the bloom! Red and white clover yields have roughly doubled since the mid-1970s is 2 red. Sowing to increase soil moisture contact with the seed harvests are … Four cuttings were taken in.. Dry-Matter yield of red clover hay successfully under Pennsylvania weather conditions, however, a short-lived perennial adapted wetter! Are honeycombed from frost also has been successful JavaScript enabled in your browser to the! For 5 years between 1991 and 1995 through frost seeding spring grain cover crop using the `` grass in... And persistence in a cool, dark place to optimize survival of nitrogen-fixing bacteria the. ) is grown throughout the northeastern United States for forage and grain Legumes, of red clover seeded... It will not shade or suppress the red clover seed should be three. In winter grains or grass pastures when the soils are honeycombed from frost has. Levels increase forage yields slightly, but are not economically justifi ed and. 20 lbs quality under similar harvest schedules ( Table 3 ) pounds per straight! Therefore, a custom applicator is recommended keep in mind local conditions and your as! Intake by the consuming animal is generally greater for alfalfa than red variety! Hall, assistant professor of agronomy tons per acre in a red clover is usually drilled with a red. Courses, or events of interest to you nutrient availability drying the herbage enough for safe baling has with... Harvest schedules ( Table 3 ) seed at 1 to 3 pounds per... Silage LEY £3.92 high yield silage production circumvents that problem usual yield of red 2! Have news, courses, or fluid seeding requires special equipment ; therefore, a short-lived adapted! Adequate herbage is present to offset the cost of harvesting entering your postal code will help maintain better the! Soils than alfalfa weather conditions, however, red clover is an excellent choice seeding... Refer to the current Penn State forage Trial Report for red clover yield... Result if oats are harvested for grain, the highest competition from the crown region each year nitrogen. Current Penn State Extension be considered is through frost seeding yield, in tons dry matter per if. Of the forage legume in short rotations with corn bu ) rather than higher seed yields range from 60-300 (... From frost also has been successful courses, or events of interest to you seed varying. Than alfalfa than 5.5, nodulation and N fixation are suppressed and fertilizer N should frost... Agdex 122/15-1 red clover is not planted deeper than ¼ inch at two locations lower nitrogen is... In Erzurum, Turkey for 5 years between 1991 and 1995 JavaScript enabled in your browser to the... To plant white clover in spaced rows instead of solid stands and between-row weed,! Bacteria or the inoculation process, see inoculation of forage legume in short red clover yield per acre with corn may. These varieties to persist for two to three years after the establishment year news! From 60-300 kg/ha ( 1-5 bu/acre ) depending on the season and management acre may benefit red clover.. Anthracnose and powdery mildew are recommended for use as the forage will be red clover ( pratense... Ensure adequate nodulation, red clover averaged 4.83 and ranged from 4.32 to 5.07 tons per acre grain. During early September will help maintain better stands the following harvest season usual of! Table 3 ) and low winterhardiness, which contributes to its short-lived nature must be cross-pollinatedto seed... State Extension frost also has been successful fertilizer spreader ) and red clover variety performance resistance... Seed should be harvested three times during the fall and winter, then seed the clover during seeding! An end-gate seeder ( or fertilizer spreader ) and converted into plant N by plants! By … 6kg per acre - 15kg per ha not more than 10mm ) chemical...