Stem bark, root bark, and leave extract of this plant have wide applications in traditional folk medicines since ancient times. It is also used as a tonic. Particularly well-cited examples of natural products obtained from medicinal plants that have become prominent in modern pharmacotherapy as anticancer agents, include vinblastine and vincristine from Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), paclitaxel, and its derived compounds from Taxus species and camptothecin and its derivatives from Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Chinese tree) . see more; Family Oleaceae . Most Fraxinus species are dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants but sex in ash is expressed as a continuum between male and female individuals, dominated by unisexual trees. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Regulatory circuits and molecular machineries that govern cellular function and fate are mainly disrupted by oncogenic mutations, conferring tumor cells towards various traits that assist their malignant behavior. Data concerning many perspectives of the genus Fraxinus such as mechanism of action, phytochemistry (detail of bioactive components), and clinical trials employing scientific technologies is still very restricted which demand for supplementary studies peculiarly in humans. Accumulated data by researchers commend that apoptosis induction in cancerous cells can result from various biological chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents [66–71]. The first record of sophisticated medicinal system from natural products dates back to 2600 BC in Mesopotamia, consisting of about 1000 medicines derived from botanical compounds and plant derivatives . leaves against CCl4 induced hepatic toxicity in rat,”, E. M. Ede, “Cellular oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes,”, S. Chen, M. Ju, Y. Luo et al., “Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the aqueous: extract from the rhizome of phragmites Australis,”, S. A. Ganie, T. A. Dar, B. Zargar et al., “Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of crataegus songarica methanol extract,”, A. Free radicals have capability to interact with cellular components and thus causing DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and protein injuries . Not all of these may be present, but these warning signs could be a good indication of possible infestation. Noteworthy Characteristics. Early cars had frames which were intended to flex as part of the suspension system to simplify construction. Metabolites and extracts from this plant have been found to possess variety of biological activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antiallergic, skin regenerating, and diuretic [28, 29]. Various hallmarks underlie the establishment of tumor cells: substantiating angiogenesis, tissue invasion, disruption of apoptosis, limitless duplication potential, being unresponsive to antigrowth signals, metabolic reprogramming, and genomic imbalance . Wound healing, when applied directly. There is a need to identify the toxicological limits for certain organs like liver and kidney. Esculetin, a major component from Fraxinus chinensis extract (FCE), represented the strongest antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals associated with superoxide anions in xanthine oxidase system and esculetin also effectively inhibited the oxidation of 7′dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-H2DCFDA) and 5-(6-)dichloromethyl-2′ . , Ash species native to North America also provide important habit and food for various other creatures native to North America. Inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase by aqueous ethanolic extract of Fraxinus excelsior is one of the possible mechanisms behind its anti-inflammatory activity . Actaea spicata HPUS Ammonium phoshoricum HPUS Belladonna HPUS Colchicum autumnale HPUS Formicum acidum HPUS Fraxinus excelsior HPUS Ledum palustre HPUS Natrum â¦ Kim, H.-Y. With regard to ongoing investigations on Fraxinus plant’s biological applications further scientific experimentations and safety profiling are required to make understandings more clear and obvious in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. More Accounts and Images; ARS â¦ It lights and burns easily, so is used for starting fires and barbecues, and is usable for maintaining a fire, though it produces only a moderate heat. Oral administration of hydroethanolic extracts from Fraxinus ornus at dose concentrations of 10 or 50 mg/kg body weight in nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice showed potent antihyperglycemic activity. In 18th century England, â¦ The bark and leaf are used to make medicine. Esculetin, esculin, fraxin, and fraxetin are some of the pharmacologically active components isolated from different species of Fraxinus plant (Figure 2). R. Howes, N. S. L. Perry, and P. J. Houghton, “Plants with traditional uses and activities, relevant to the management of Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive disorders,”, S.-P. The concern of resistance provoked the need of effective and eco-friendly alternatives . The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.  At the end of October 2012 in the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) reported that ash dieback had been discovered in mature woodland in Suffolk; previous occurrences had been on young trees imported from Europe. The tree's common English name, "ash", traces back to the Old English Ã¦sc, which relates to the proto-Indo-European for the tree, while the generic name originated in Latin from a proto-Indo-European word for birch. Oral administration of ethanolic extract from Fraxinus rhynchophylla [FR (EtOH)] against CCl4 induced hepatic fibrosis resulted in protective effects by its free radical scavenging ability against hepatocellular fibrosis in rats. B. Saba, O. M. Onakoya, and A. Esculetin from Fraxinus chinensis extract resulted in protective effects against photoaging via downregulating the MMP-1 mRNA in a dose-dependent fashion due to its free radical scavenging nature . A magas kÅris (Fraxinus excelsior) â amint ezt neve (excelsior, vagyis kimagasló) is mutatja â az olajfafélék családjának legmagasabbra növÅ faja Elterjedése, élÅhelye. Feeding on the phloem prevents nutrients and water transportation. The structure offers comfortable and tastefully furnished rooms. Birds are also interested in black, green, and white ash trees. Kidney stones. A study on herbal medicines has revealed that Fraxinus excelsior extract promotes diuresis and thus potentially can be used as hypotensive agent . Huang et al., “Fraxinus rhynchophylla ethanol extract attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats via down-regulating the expressions of uPA, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1,”, U. Rohnert, W. Schneider, and E. F. Elstner, “Superoxide-dependent and -independent nitrite formation from hydroxylamine: inhibition by plant extracts,”, Y.-S. Lee, S.-H. Han, S.-H. Lee et al., “Synergistic effect of tetrandrine and ethidium bromide against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA),”, J. Vandal, M. M. Abou-Zaid, G. Ferroni, and L. G. Leduc, “Antimicrobial activity of natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario, Canada,”, H. Wang, D. Zou, K. Xie, and M. Xie, “Antibacterial mechanism of fraxetin against Staphylococcus aureus,”, A. Wąsik and L. Antkiewicz-Michaluk, “The mechanism of neuroprotective action of natural compounds,”, L. Zhang, L. Hao, H. Wang et al., “Neuroprotective effect of resveratrol against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity,”, Y.-L. Lan, J. Zhao, and S. Li, “Estrogen receptors’ neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity,”, S. Pourkhodadad, M. Alirezaei, M. Moghaddasi et al., “Neuroprotective effects of oleuropein against cognitive dysfunction induced by colchicine in hippocampal CA1 area in rats,”, E.-J. Evaluation of methanolic extracts from Fraxinus floribunda in rats at a dose concentration of 400 mg/kg/oral reveals its significant antinociceptive properties and its potential for relieving pain in pathological conditions such as inflammation . Woodworkers generally consider ash a "poor cousin" to the other major open pore wood, oak, but it is useful in any furniture application. The green ash (F. pennsylvanica) is widely planted as a street tree in the United States. Phytochemicals obtained from medicinal plants, herbs, seeds, and fruits such as phenolic compounds (terpenoids, flavonoids, and carotenoids) have shown promising effects in suppressing proliferation and thus are anticarcinogenic . Fraxinus presents pharmacological effectiveness by targeting the novel targets in several pathological conditions, which provide a spacious therapeutic time window. Latin name: Fraxinus excelsior Family: Oleaceae (Olive Family) Medicinal use of Ash: The leaves are astringent, cathartic, diaphoretic, mildly diuretic, laxative and purgative. Zeggwagh, M. Haloui, and J.-B. Ash was commonly used for the structural members of the bodies of cars made by carriage builders. Then, various pharmacological perspectives of Fraxinus plant such as proper dosage and clinical effectiveness are yet to be elucidated. von Kruedener S(1), Schneider W, Elstner EF. . Polyphenolic compounds as catechin, rutin, quercetin, and tannic acid from Fraxinus angustifolia bark and leaf extracts incorporated with different nanovesicles to increase the skin bioavailability found to be effective for their wound healing potential which is associated with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity . Among them, 49% of anticancer drugs belong to natural products [6, 7]. A. Rahuman et al., “Evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants from North Indian Buchpora and South Indian Eastern Ghats,”, K. C. Chinsembu, “Plants as antimalarial agents in Sub-Saharan Africa,”, B. Aydin-Schmidt, W. Thorsell, and M. Wahlgren, “Carolus linnaeus, the ash, worm-wood and other anti-malarial plants,”, J. C. Sepulveda-Arias, L. A. Veloza, and L. E. Mantilla-Muriel, “Anti-Toxoplasma activity of natural products: a review,”, Z. Y. Yu, B. D. Zhang, J. Y. Ning et al., “Advances in researches on mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine,”, T. Mizutani and H. Masaki, “Anti-photoaging capability of antioxidant extract from, J. Hubert, A. Angelis, N. Aligiannis et al., “In vitro dermo-cosmetic evaluation of bark extracts from common temperate trees,”, T. Ughetto, “Glucevia Fraxinus excelsior extract effectively controls blood glucose levels in randomized, controlled trial,”, M. A. Zulet, S. Navas-Carretero, D. Lara Y Sánchez et al., “A Fraxinus excelsior L. seeds/fruits extract benefits glucose homeostasis and adiposity related markers in elderly overweight/obese subjects: A longitudinal, randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutritional intervention study,”, Z. Medjahed, D. Atmani-Kilani, M.-L. Fauconnier, G. Richard, and D. Atmani, “Hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl extracts in animal models: Characterization by high performance liquid chromatography analysis,”, S. F. Abouzid, O. M. Ahmed, R. R. Ahmed, A. Mahmoud, E. Abdella, and M. B. Ashour, “Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae,”, J.-C. Tsai, S. Tsai, and W.-C. Chang, “Effect of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants with anti-diarrheal properties on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia,”, C. I. Wright, L. van-Buren, C. I. Kroner, and M. M. G. Koning, “Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence,”. Artemisinin, a potential antimalarial agent, was initially derived from Chinese medicinal herb Artemisia annua L. . FR (EtOH) has much action accordingly to dose: so 0.1, 0.5 g, and 1.0 g/kg body weight significantly upregulated the action of liver antioxidant enzymes (such as CAT, SOD, and GPx) and decreased the high activities of sGOT and sGPT. Fraxinus excelsior bark extract for its free radical scavenging activities and for tyrosinase elastase and collagenase prohibitory activities suggest its use in dermocosmetic industry . Even though inflammatory response varies among different diseases, principally diseased condition is linked with the production of prostaglandins which are formed from arachidonate by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes. Natural products are valuable anticancer lead structures for cancer drug discovery. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Its robust structure, good looks, and flexibility combine to make ash ideal for staircases. Bark Of The Ash. The ash tree was thought to have medicinal and mystical properties and the wood was burned to ward off evil spirits. The antifungal activity against Schizosaccharomyces octosporus and Candida albicans cultures with inhibitory concentration value ranging from 62.5 to 1000 μg/mL shows that Fraxinus pennsylvanicca plant extract exhibits notable antifungal activity . Fraxetin showed protective activities against liver microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(+2) in rats with inhibitory rate of 60% at a concentration of 10(−6) mol × L(−1) . The two most economically important species for wood production are white ash, in eastern North America, and European ash in Europe. Both words are also used to mean "spear" in their respective languages, as the wood is good for shafts. Michel, “Fraxinus excelsior L. evokes a hypotensive action in normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats,”, N. K. Kaushik, A. Bagavan, A. Antioxidants are substances that have ability to reduce the harmful effects of these free radicals. Glycosides isolated from the ethanolic extract of the bark of Fraxinus sieboldiana resulted in induction of apoptosis via activation of pro-caspase-8 in colorectal cancer HCT-8 cells . A Fraxinus excelsior L. seeds/fruits extract benefits glucose homeostasis and adiposity related markers in elderly overweight/obese subjects: A longitudinal, randomized, crossover, double-blind, â¦ About 80% of the population globally depends upon the botanical drugs mainly from medicinal plants . Xuan, “Water-soluble constituents of the root barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla (Chinese drug Qinpi),”, J.-H. Jiang, C.-M. Jin, Y.-C. Kim, H.-S. Kim, W.-C. Park, and H. Park, “Anti-toxoplasmosis effects of oleuropein isolated from Fraxinus rhychophylla,”, M. H. Kim, J. Min, J. Y. Lee et al., “Oleuropein isolated from Fraxinus rhynchophylla inhibits glutamate-induced neuronal cell death by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction,”, Y.-C. Tien, J.-C. Liao, C.-S. Chiu et al., “Esculetin ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-mediated hepatic apoptosis in rats,”, R. A. Macahig, L. Harinantenaina, K. Matsunami, H. Otsuka, Y. Takeda, and T. Shinzato, “Secoiridoid and iridoid glucosides from the leaves of Fraxinus griffithii,”, S. Lin, M. T. Liu, S. J. Wang et al., “Coumarins from branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana and their antioxidative activity,”, S. Lin, S. Wang, M. Liu et al., “Glycosides from the stem bark of Fraxinus sieboldiana,”, H. J. Kim, Y. G. Yu, H. Park, and Y. S. Lee, “HIV gp41 binding phenolic components from Fraxinus sieboldiana var. The names found have these generic epithets: Fraxinus; species epithets begin with: E; The results â¦ Abietane extracted from Fraxinus sieboldiana exhibits cytotoxic activities against human ovarian A2780 cells and A549 (lung carcinoma) . Mistletoe extract obtained from host tree Fraxinus showed cytotoxicity against various cancerous cells including chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells, human multiple myeloma RPMI-8226 cells, and murine leukemia L1210 cells via JNK-1/2, caspase-9, and p38 MAPK activation, Mcl-1 downregulation, and inhibition of PKB and ERK-1/2 phosphorylation.  In 2016, the ash tree was reported as in danger of extinction in Europe.. Zhu, “Anti-apoptotic effect of esculin on dopamine-induced cytotoxicity in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line,”, I. Lahmar, H. Belghith, F. Ben Abdallah, and K. Belghith, “Nutritional composition and phytochemical, antioxidative, and antifungal activities of Pergularia tomentosa L,”, A. Mohammadi, H. Nazari, S. Imani, and H. Amrollahi, “Antifungal activities and chemical composition of some medicinal plants,”, C. Y. Kwan, “Vascular effects of selected antihypertensive drugs derived from traditional medicinal herbs,”, N. López-Carreras, S. Fernández-Vallinas, M. Miguel, and A. Aleixandre, “Long-term effect of an aqueous Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract in spontaneously hypertensive rats,”, M. Eddouks, M. Maghrani, N.-A. Abnobaviscum F extract specifically targets Mcl-1 at mRNA stage thus contributing to the activation of intrinsic caspase pathway. Herbal medicines such as STW 1 (Phytodolor) with an active component obtained from Fraxinus excelsior are an acceptable substitute to COX-2-inhibitors such as rofecoxib and NSAIDs . Chemical constituents of Fraxinus plant include various secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans; therefore, it is considered as a plant with versatile biological and pharmacological activities. Gundermann and J. Müller, “Phytodolor®—effects and efficacy of a herbal medicine,”, N.-Y. Fraxinus excelsior Figure 1. The seeds, popularly known as "keys" or "helicopter seeds", are a type of fruit known as a samara. Yang, S.-I. Compounds isolated from various species of, Some of the biologically active compounds isolated from, A diagram representing the molecular targets and mechanism of action for, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab 38000, Pakistan, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Sargodha, Punjab 40100, Pakistan, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing potential, Nuzhenide, GI3, GI5, ligstroside, oleoside 11-methyl ester, 1′′′-O-beta-D-glucosylformoside, excelsides A, excelsides B, oleoside dimethyl ester, coumarins, Antihypertensive, antihypertriglyceridemia, adipocyte differentiation inhibitory activity, antidiabetic, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, Hydroxyframoside B 2′′-hydroxyoleuropein, oleuropein, ligstroside, syringin, esculin, fraxetin, fraxetin-8-O-[11′-methyl-oleosidyl-(7′→ 6′′)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, esculetin, Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity, inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, neuroprotective (protection against Abeta (25–35)-induced neuronal toxicity), antidyslipidemia, renoprotective, metal and free radical induced LDL oxidation inhibitor, antiatherosclerosis, antioxidant, PTP1B inhibitor, antitoxoplasmosis, glutamate-induced neuronal HT-22 cell death inhibition, hepatoprotective, 7-epi-7-O-(E)-caffeoylloganic acid, griffithosides C, Abietane, C20-norabietane, 6, 7-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylesculetin, aromatic glycosides, plantasioside, Calceolarioside B, Esculetin, Antioxidant against DPPH radicals, antiphotoaging, quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity, Immunosuppressant (inhibition of IL-2 and IgE production in mouse spleen cells and U266 cells), Antioxidant, antifungal (MIC = 1.8–3.8 mg/mL), Anti-inflammatory against zymosan- and carrageenan-induced paw oedema, Analgesic, anti-inflammatory (superoxide scavenging effects on the xanthine-xanthine oxidase-cytochrome c system), Anti-inflammatory effect of oleuropein on LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells, Protective effects of methanolic extract from, Modulation of cytokine expression by 5-methoxyl aesculetin (MOA) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, Protective activities of methanolic extract of, T-cell activation⊥, arachidonic acid cascade⊥, Y. 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