Even more painful for the Druze community was his publication of "falsified Druze religious texts" and false testimonials ascribed to leading Druze sheikhs designed to stir up sectarian hatred. The number 5 contains an unstated significance within the Druze faith, it's believed in this area that great prophets come in groups of five. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. The ruins of this castle still stand on a steep hill overlooking the town. The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe. Jumblatt's post-2005 position diverged sharply from the tradition of his family. [94] Ahmad continued as local ruler through his death from natural causes, without heir, in 1697. socially. This culminated in the civil war of 1860. [52], For the next seven years, the Druze faced extreme persecution by the new caliph, al-Zahir, who wanted to eradicate the faith. And by that time, because of earlier persecutions, their faith was closed to new followers and they opposed marriage outside of the Druze faith. [186], In 1959, in an ecumenical move driven by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser's effort to broaden his political appeal after the establishment of the United Arab Republic between Egypt and Syria in 1958,[187] the Islamic scholar Mahmud Shaltut at Al Azhar University in Cairo classified the Druze as Muslims,[188] even though most Druze no longer consider themselves Muslim. Also, the Druze formed an alliance with Britain and allowed Protestant missionaries to enter Mount Lebanon, creating tension between them and the Catholic Maronites. [130], Reincarnation is a paramount principle in the Druze faith. This time the prince decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Ali in Wadi al-Taym was the beginning of his defeat. [85], In the early period of the Crusader era, the Druze feudal power was in the hands of two families, the Tanukhs and the Arslans. found that the Israeli Druze people of the Mount Carmel region have among the highest rate of the newly evolved ASPM- Haplogroup D, at 52.2% occurrence of the approximately 6,000-year-old allele. ... said to be comprised of secrets revealed in … They are found in Syria, Lebanon and Israel.[155]. The Druze people reside primarily in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. The military balance of power in Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes, at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine. The Druze is a monotheistic religious group found primarily in Syria, Lebanon and Israel. This area borders the Zagros and the Ararat mountains and is the tallest region in Turkey. This area borders the Zagros and the Ararat mountains and is … A portrait of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ( Public Domain ). Man, by his very nature, is a being who seeks knowledge. Unlike the spiritual leaders, the authority of the Shaykh al-ʻAql is limited to the country he is elected in, though in some instances spiritual leaders are elected to this position. [241], The researchers noted that the Druze villages contained a striking range of high frequency and high diversity of the X haplogroup, suggesting that this population provides a glimpse into the past genetic landscape of the Near East at a time when the X haplogroup was more prevalent. At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. Messiah on Temple Mount: Are We Nearing the End of Time? [239] This haplogroup originates from prehistoric South Asia and has spread from Pakistan into southern Iran. [56], Druze people reside primarily in Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan. [128][page needed], In this dogma, they are similar to the semi-philosophical, semi-religious body which flourished under Al-Ma'mun and was known by the name of Mu'tazila and the fraternal order of the Brethren of Purity (Ikhwan al-Ṣafa). While all inhabitants of coastal Syria ( there was no "Palestine" then were free to practice their own religion, by the time of Alexander the Great and afterwards most all of them worshiped Greek, Egyptian and Anatolian deities communicating with each other in Greek but not the Jews there. [182][183] Ottomans have often relied on Ibn Taymiyya religious ruling to justify their persecution of Druze. In 1038, two years after the death of al-Zahir, the Druze movement was able to resume because the new leadership that replaced him had friendly political ties with at least one prominent Druze leader. Sharia was opposed and Druze traditions started during the call continue today, such as meeting for reading, prayer and social gathering on a Thursday instead of a Friday at Khalwats instead of mosques. [104], Although most Druze no longer consider themselves Muslim, Al Azhar of Egypt recognized them in 1959 as one of the Islamic sects in the Al-Azhar Shia Fatwa due to a political reasons, as Gamal Abdel Nasser saw it as a tool to spread his appeal and influence across the entire Arab world. The Druze are religiously divided into two groups. However, studies done on larger samples showed that L-M20 averages 5% in Israeli Druze,[Footnote 1] 8% in Lebanese Druze,[Footnote 2] and it was not found in a sample of 59 Syrian Druze. These messengers were sent out with the Druze epistles and took written vows from believers, whose souls are thought to still exist in the Druze of today. [28] The Druze faith incorporates elements of Isma'ilism, a branch of Shia Islam,[29] Gnosticism,[30][31] Christianity,[30][31] Zoroastrianism,[32][33] Buddhism,[34][35] Hinduism,[36][37] Neoplatonism,[30][31] Pythagoreanism,[36][37] and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology based on an esoteric interpretation of scripture, which emphasises the role of the mind and truthfulness. Regardless of the initial inhabitants of these lands, settlers from Crete, Achaia and Cyprus were the well established rulers. "Druze rights activist from Philadelphia ordered released." Monotheism is the religious title of the Druze community in Lebanon and its surrounding areas. Many of the Druze feudal families whose genealogies have been preserved by the two modern Syrian chroniclers Haydar al-Shihabi and Ahmad Faris al-Shidyaq seem also to point in the direction of this origin. [234] Figures in the Hebrew Bible such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Moses are considered important prophets of God in the Druze faith, being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history. Most of them live in Syria and Lebanon.Some have emigrated to the United States and Canada.. Communities Uncovered: The Secretive Druze Religion - YouTube [83] This was the result of a power struggle inside of the Fatimid empire in which the Druze were viewed with suspicion because of their refusal to recognize the new caliph as their Imam. [77][78], Some Druze and non-Druze scholars like Samy Swayd and Sami Makarem state that this confusion is due to confusion about the role of the early preacher al-Darazi, whose teachings the Druze rejected as heretical. Was Moloch really Ba’al, the Ancient God Who Demanded Child Sacrifice? The Hauran rebellion was a violent Druze uprising against Ottoman authority in the Syrian province, which erupted in May 1909. 19, No. Druze Woman Takes on a Male-dominated Society, Through a Lens Darkly . Under his auspices the French established a khān (hostel) in Sidon, the Florentines a consulate, and Christian missionaries were admitted into the country. Among living beings, man alone possesses the power to comprehend, infer, and think in a sophisticated manner. The Druze religion differs from classic forms of other monotheistic faiths in several key ways. [110][page needed], He forcibly integrated minorities into the national Syrian social structure, his "Syrianization" of Alawite and Druze territories had to be accomplished in part using violence, he declared: "My enemies are like serpent. In 1018, ad-Darazi was assassinated for his teachings; some sources claim that he was executed by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Given the strict religious, intellectual and spiritual requirements, most of the Druzes are not initiated and might be referred to as al-Juhhāl (جهال), literally "the Ignorant", but in practice referring to the non-initiated Druzes; however, that term is seldom used by the Druzes. By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. While the spiritual elements of their religion are highly guarded and known only to the elders, the known practices are made up of various religions which include Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and Judaism. [84] The largest massacre was at Antioch, where 5000 prominent Druze were killed, followed by that of Aleppo. The Khazars were people of mixed Central Asian origin that adopted the Jewish religion by choise. In 2012, due to drift towards Salafism in Al-Azhar,and the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood into leadership, the dean of the Faculty of Islamic Studies at Al-Azhar issued a fatwa strongly opposed to the 1959 fatwa. [38] The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Christianity,[30][31] and other religious beliefs. Dating is not allowed, most especially outside the faith. [110][page needed], Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their religion and politics. This led the Ottoman government to agree to an arrangement whereby the different nahiyes (districts) of the Chouf would be granted in iltizam ("fiscal concession") to one of the region's amirs, or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and order and the collection of its taxes in the area in the hands of the appointed amir. [57][58] The Institute of Druze Studies estimates that 40–50% of Druze live in Syria, 30–40% in Lebanon, 6–7% in Israel, and 1–2% in Jordan. Throughout history, the Caucasus region – which borders Europe and Asia – was subjected to political, military, religious and cultural conflict, which prompted many tribes to seek refuge in remote regions. The word Druzes, in an early Hebrew edition of his travels, occurs as "Dogziyin", but it is clear that this is a scribal error. The Druze are Arabic-speaking citizens of Israel and serve in the Israel Defense Forces, just as most citizens do in Israel. The Maronite-Druze conflict in 1840–60 was an outgrowth of the Maronite Christian independence movement,[citation needed] directed against the Druze, Druze feudalism, and the Ottoman-Turks. This led to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of ad-Darazi and his supporters. Fakhr ad Din II was succeeded in 1635 by his nephew Ahmed Ma'an, who ruled through his death in 1658. Druzes and Christians grouped in political, rather than religious, parties; the party lines in Lebanon obliterated ethnic and religious lines and the people grouped themselves into one or the other of these two parties regardless of their religious affiliations. [86][page needed], The relationship between the Druze and Christians has been characterized by harmony and coexistence,[95][96][97][98] with amicable relations between the two groups prevailing throughout history, with the exception of some periods, including 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war. Those who violate this rule can be killed or excommunicated. Combined with our earlier research showing the northeastern Turkish origins of Ashkenazic Jews , we can explain that genetic similarity via the shared origin of Ashkenazic Jews and Druze. [86][page needed]. The Druze faith is one of the major religious groups in the Levant, with between 800,000 and a million adherents. [67][68][page needed], Little information is known about the early life of al-Darazi. [210], Contact between Christian communities (members of the Maronites, Eastern Orthodox, Melkite, and other churches) and the Unitarian Druze led to the presence of mixed villages and towns in Mount Lebanon, Jabal al-Druze,[211] the Galilee region, and Mount Carmel. Fact #3: Druze is a blend of Islam, Hindu, and Greek philosophy. According to most sources, he was born in Bukhara. According to Warren Bennis’s classic On Becoming a Leader, leadership is “the capacity to translate vision into reality.” This means that success starts with answering a fundamental question, What do I really want? The faith was preached by Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad, an Ismaili mystic and scholar from Zozan, Khorasan, in the Samanid Empire. Dionyssus' theater at the foott of Acropolis still has the marble seat of honor-first row-for their religious leader. Bashar Tarabieh "Education, Control and Resistance in the Golan Heights". [citation needed], The 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica states that the Druzes are "a mixture of refugee stocks, in which the Arab largely predominates, grafted on to an original mountain population of Aramaic blood". [229][217][230] Share in Facebook. The primary sanctuary of the Druze is at Khalwat al-Bayada.[135]. You will therefore see uninitiated Druze drunkenly dancing in Beirut’s nightclubs, exactly … [142][143][144][145][146] al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah is an important figure in the Druze faith whose eponymous founder ad-Darazi proclaimed him as the incarnation of God in 1018.[142][143]. Many Druze religious practices are kept secret, even from the community as a whole. ( Secretsun) Previous research has always placed the origins of the Druze in the Near East region. The Druze were no different. Hamza gained the support of the Fātimid caliph al-Hakim, who issued a decree promoting religious freedom prior to the declaration of the divine call. Afterwards many local Syrians convert to Islam and many muslim arabs settle there. He accused the entire community of treason, at times claiming they were agents of the British and Hashimites, at others that they were fighting for Israel against the Arabs. The prevailing idea among Druzes themselves today is that they are of Arab stock. Excerpts. As a religious minority in every country in which they are found, they have frequently experienced persecution by different Muslim regimes. [160][159], Historically the relationship between the Druze and Muslims has been characterized by intense persecution. [213] Both religions venerated John the Baptist,[149] Saint George,[214] Elijah,[149] and other common figures. From Encyclopedia Britannica: The Druze permit no conversion, either away from or to their religion. "Still, I sensed that here—among the rose bushes and palm trees lining the streets, amid the duality of headscarves and miniskirts, the illegal internet cafés and Koran sellers, the burger joints and open-air spice markets, the concrete high-rises and ancient ruins—I could find a sort of tranquil balance, and perhaps even locate that same sense of equilibrium in myself." Jean-Marc Aractingi, La Face Cachée des Druzes " Les Francs-Maçons de l'Orient" , 251 pages, Editeur : Independently published (6 juillet 2020), Jean-Marc Aractingi, "Les Druzes et la Franc-maçonnerie", in, Jean-Marc Aractingi, "Points de convergence dans les rituels et symboles chez les Druzes et chez les francs-maçons", in, Pinhas Inabri "Pan-Arabism versus Pan-Islam – Where Do the Druze Fit? Ye now may find rest in his assurance ye shall not be wronged. Archaeologists from Israel’s Antiquities Authority have announced an intriguing new discovery . Although the Druze consider ad-Darazī a heretic,[50] the name has been used to identify them, possibly by their historical opponents as a way to attach their community with ad-Darazi poor perception. The only early Arab historian who mentions the Druze is the eleventh century Christian scholar Yahya of Antioch, who clearly refers to the heretical group created by ad-Darazī, rather than the followers of Hamza ibn 'Alī. Members of the community have attained top positions in Israeli politics and public service. This is like one's image in the mirror: One is in the mirror, but does not become the mirror. The Qaysite party represented the Bedouin Arabs who were regarded as inferior by the Yemenites who were earlier and more cultured emigrants into Syria from southern Arabia. [88] One influential Islamic sage of that time[who?] Quwwatli could not dismiss Sultan Pasha's threat. Shows a marriage ceremony and the unique situation of the Druze residing in Israel. The first feudal Druze family, the Tanukhids, which made for itself a name in fighting the Crusaders, was, according to Haydar al-Shihabi, an Arab tribe from Mesopotamia where it occupied the position of a ruling family and apparently was Christianized. [5] The Institute of Druze Studies estimates that 40%–50% of Druze live in Syria, 30%–40% in Lebanon, 6%–7% in Israel, and 1%–2% in Jordan. Male ʻuqqāl often grow mustaches, and wear dark Levantine-Turkish traditional dresses, called the shirwal, with white turbans that vary according to the seniority of the ʻuqqāl. Al-Darazi was converted to be one of the early preachers of the Unitarian faith. Previously restricted sections of the lavish living quarters of one of history’s most infamous oppressors are about to be revealed to the public for the first time. At the end of 2018, there were 143,000. [203] The Druze community does celebrate Eid al-Adha, however, considered their most significant holiday, yet they celebrated differently compare to Sunni and Shia Muslims. Israel is the biggest hoax in history. Their gratitude to their hosts was formulated into their basic doctrine that they were "God's people of choise" and that the land of their hosts belonged to them-the guests! Remove ye the causes of fear and estrangement from yourselves. 19, No. We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives. [226] Since the establishment of the state of Israel, the Druze have demonstrated solidarity with Israel and distanced themselves from Arab and Islamic radicalism. The European powers then determined to intervene, and authorized the landing in Beirut of a body of French troops under General Beaufort d'Hautpoul, whose inscription can still be seen on the historic rock at the mouth of Nahr al-Kalb. Additionally, souls cannot be divided and the number of souls existing in the universe is finite. At the end of the 17th century (1697) the Shihabs succeeded the Ma'ans in the feudal leadership of Druze southern Lebanon, although they reportedly professed Sunni Islam, they showed sympathy with Druzism, the religion of the majority of their subjects. Did Stone Age Neanderthals wait out the coldest days of winter snuggled up safely beneath furs deep inside caves, in a state of suspended animation for months while the winds raged, and the snow piled up outside? It appeared in the Levant during the reign of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, (996 - 1021). Druze Sacred texts include the Qur'an and the Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom). Protection and mutual aid to the brethren in faith. By conveying to you the reality of his intention, the Prince of Believers hath spared you any excuse for doing so. However, they were less ready for personal relationships with Jews compared to Israeli Muslims and Christians.[232]. Share in WhatsApp. They might or might not dress differently, although most wear a costume that was characteristic of mountain people in previous centuries. "-, R. Scott Kennedy "The Druze of the Golan: A Case of Non-Violent Resistance". After the assassination of Kamal Jumblatt on 16 March 1977, his son Walid Jumblatt took the leadership of the party and played an important role in preserving his father's legacy after winning the Mountain War and sustained the existence of the Druze community during the sectarian bloodshed that lasted until 1990. The Druze (/druːz/;[18] Arabic: درزي‎ darzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz; Hebrew: דְּרוּזִי‎ drūzī plural .mw-parser-output .script-hebrew,.mw-parser-output .script-Hebr{font-family:"SBL Hebrew","SBL BibLit","Frank Ruehl CLM","Taamey Frank CLM","Ezra SIL","Ezra SIL SR","Keter Aram Tsova","Taamey Ashkenaz","Taamey David CLM","Keter YG","Shofar","David CLM","Hadasim CLM","Simple CLM","Nachlieli",Cardo,Alef,"Noto Serif Hebrew","Noto Sans Hebrew","David Libre",David,"Times New Roman",Gisha,Arial,FreeSerif,FreeSans}דְּרוּזִים‎, druzim) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group[19] originating in Western Asia who self-identify as The People of Monotheism (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn). However, it has been argued that these two factions were of a political nature, rather than ethnic, and had both Christian and Druze supporters. He frequently proclaimed: "My enemies are like a serpent: The head is the Jebel al-Druze, the stomach Homs, and the tail Aleppo. With a community of little more than 100,000 in 1949, or roughly three percent of the Syrian population, the Druze of Syria's southwestern mountains constituted a potent force in Syrian politics and played a leading role in the nationalist struggle against the French. A 2020 study on remains from Canaanaite (Bronze Age southern Levantine) populations suggests a significant degree of genetic continuity in currently Arabic-speaking Levantine populations (including the Druze, Lebanese, Palestinians, and Syrians) as well as in most Jewish groups (including Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and Maghrebi Jews) from the populations of the Bronze Age Levant, suggesting that the aforementioned groups all derive more than half of their overall ancestry (atDNA) from Canaanite/Bronze Age Levantine populations,[245][246] albeit with varying sources and degrees of admixture from differing host or invading populations depending on each group. Whether you call the answer to that question your mission statement, core values, brand identity or just your goals doesn’t really matter. [110][page needed], When a local paper in 1945 reported that President Shukri al-Quwatli (1943–49) had called the Druzes a "dangerous minority", Sultan Pasha al-Atrash flew into a rage and demanded a public retraction. From 1957, the Israeli government formally recognized the Druze as a separate religious community,[231] and are defined as a distinct ethnic group in the Israeli Ministry of Interior's census registration. The name Druze is derived from the name of Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazī (from Persian darzi, "seamster") who was an early preacher. Tania Abou Ltaif humorously explores what it means to be a Druze woman, she discusses how she reconciles her religion with her liberal values and feminism. In 1945, Amir Hasan al-Atrash, the paramount political leader of the Jebel al-Druze, led the Druze military units in a successful revolt against the French, making the Jebel al-Druze the first and only region in Syria to liberate itself from French rule without British assistance. But European intervention pressured the Turks to treat the Maronites more justly. However, al-Darazi ignored Hamza's warnings and continued to challenge the Imam. ( Secretsun). The main Druze doctrine states that God is both transcendent and immanent, in which he is above all attributes, but at the same time, he is present. A human soul will transfer only to a human body, in contrast to the Hindu and Buddhist belief systems, according to which souls can transfer to any living creature. [140], Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad is considered the founder of the Druze and the primary author of the Druze manuscripts,[141] he proclaimed that God had become human and taken the form of man, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. In the outcome of the revolt, 2,000 Druze were killed, a similar number wounded, and hundreds of Druze fighters imprisoned. There has been much dispute over whether the Druze are of Arabian, Turkish, Caucasus or Persian origin. [204] The Druze faith does not follow Sharia nor the Five Pillars of Islam, such as the Salah five times every day, paying the Zakat, fasting during the month of Ramadan, and making a pilgrimage to Mecca. Christian in order to blend in societies that they are protected and cared for 86 ] [ 183 Ottomans! Khalwat al-Bayada. [ 155 ] which may bring harm unto you han Purple: a Case Non-Violent! Scholars and writers and is usually confused with the Cosmic mind and achieves the ultimate happiness. [ 135.! Pure and secret as possible, Druze place less emphasis on Arab identity and more! Within the Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet inheritance [. 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