It was the center of Hellenistic culture and the center of trade in the Mediterranean area B. What was the name of the Greek dialect spoken in Hellenic cities throughout Alexander's empire? The demise of the Ptolemies' power coincided with the growing dominance of the Roman Republic. The city's temples and communities prosperous, while a new Ptolemaic style of cemeteries were built. They lived under Greek law, received a Greek education, were tried in Greek courts, and were citizens of Greek cities. Eventually, a bilingual and bicultural social class emerged in Ptolemaic Egypt. Outside of Egypt, the Ptolemies exercised control over Greek cities in Cyrenaica, Cyprus, and on the coasts and islands of the Aegean, but they were smaller than Greek poleis in Egypt. The decree records the military success of Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III and their benefactions to the Egyptian priestly elite. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGrainger2010 (, Hill, Marsha. Alexandria, major city and urban governorate in Egypt. The Attalid royal family of the great city-state of Pergamon reigned over much of western Asia Minor, and an influential dynasty of Greek and Macedonian descent ruled over a vast kingdom that stretched from Bactria to the Far East. AS YOU READ Use the web below to take notes on developments in Hellenistic culture. Egyptian nationalism reached a peak in the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (221–205 BC), when a succession of native self-proclaimed "pharoah" gained control over one district. Egyptian city that was the center of Hellenistic culture. Framed in by the barren hills of the Nile Valley and the Egyptian sky, here a Greek city arose, with its public buildings and temples and theatre, no doubt exhibiting the regular architectural forms associated with Greek culture, with a citizen-body Greek in blood, and the institutions of a Greek city. Nevertheless, the Ptolemies remained generally supportive of the Egyptian religion, which always remained key to their legitimacy. These included issues of large coins in all three metals, most notably gold pentadrachm and octadrachm, and silver tetradrachm, decadrachm and pentakaidecadrachm. Now vanished, the lighthouse was reckoned as one of the Seven Wonders of the World for its unsurpassed height (perhaps 140 metres or 460 ft); it was a square, fenestrated tower, topped with a metal fire basket and a statue of Zeus the Savior. Soldiers served in several units of the royal guard and were mobilized against uprisings and dynastic usurpers, both of which became increasingly common. astronomers. Epicureanism. [48] The army was characterized by its diversity and maintained records of its troops' national origins, or patris. In order to secure the region, the strategos of Upper Egypt, Boethus, founded two new cities, named Philometris and Cleopatra in honour of the royal couple.[19][20]. [7] Beginning in the mid second century, dynastic strife and a series of foreign wars weakened the kingdom, and it became increasingly reliant on the Roman Republic. There were indeed country towns with names such as Ptolemais, Arsinoe, and Berenice, in which Greek communities existed with a certain social life and there were similar groups of Greeks in many of the old Egyptian towns, but they were not communities with the political forms of a city-state. Both daughters were killed in Auletes' reclaiming of his throne; Tryphaena by assassination and Berenice by execution, leaving Cleopatra VII as the oldest surviving child of Ptolemy Auletes. The Zeno papyri show that it was the chief port of call on the inland voyage from Memphis to Alexandria, as well as a stopping-place on the land-route from Pelusium to the capital. As Egypt came under foreign domination and decline, the Pharaohs depended on the Greeks as mercenaries and even advisors. Archimedes. [46] The Ptolemaic military initially served a defensive purpose, primarily against competing diadochi claimants and rival Hellenistic states like the Seleucid Empire. Accordingly, we provide you with all hints and cheats and needed answers to accomplish the required crossword and find a final word of the puzzle group. scientists who study the stars and planets. However, some of these territories were lost near the end of his reign as a result of the Second Syrian War. Nevertheless, different nationalities were trained to fight together, and most officers were of Greek or Macedonian origin, which allowed for a degree of cohesion and coordination. The left is in the more traditional Egyptian style, and the right is in a more Hellenistic style. In 88 BC Ptolemy IX again returned to the throne, and retained it until his death in 80 BC. And the number of Greek men of letters during the Ptolemaic and Roman period, who were citizens of Naucratis, proves that in the sphere of Hellenic culture Naucratis held to its traditions. The Library, at that time the largest in the world, contained several hundred thousand volumes and housed and employed scholars and poets. [37] However, ways of presenting text on columns and reliefs became formal and rigid during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. Like his predecessors, Ptolemy IV presented himself as a typical Egyptian Pharaoh and actively supported the Egyptian priestly elite through donations and temple construction. [16] It is said that he borrowed the official manuscripts of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides from Athens and forfeited the considerable deposit he paid for them in order to keep them for the Library rather than returning them. Cleopatra VII officially co-ruled with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, Ptolemy XIV, and Ptolemy XV, but effectively, she ruled Egypt alone. Julius Caesar left Rome for Alexandria in 48 BC in order to quell the looming civil war, as war in Egypt, which was one of Rome's greatest suppliers of grain and other expensive goods, would have had a detrimental effect on trade with Rome, especially on Rome's working-class citizens. By now Rome was the arbiter of Egyptian affairs, and annexed both Libya and Cyprus. [75] The main naval bases were at Alexandria and Nea Paphos in Cyprus. The Jews absorbed Greek, the dominant language of Egypt at the time, and heavily mixed it with Hebrew. [86] Josephus thus places the origins of the Septuagint in the 3rd century BC, when Demetrius and Ptolemy II lived. Which wonder was constructed in the city that was the center of Hellenistic culture? As before, peasant farmers remained the vast majority of the population, while agricultural land and produce were owned directly by the state, temple, or noble family that owned the land. Athens should no longer live unfairly in the shadow of its more famous forerunner. Periodic conflicts occurred between Jews and ethnic Greeks. Also, in 123 BC, when there was trouble in Upper Egypt between the towns of Crocodilopolis and Hermonthis, the negotiators sent from Crocodilopolis were the young men attached to the gymnasium, who, according to the Greek tradition, ate bread and salt with the negotiators from the other town. 2. The main Roman interest in Egypt was always the reliable delivery of grain to the city of Rome. When did organ music become associated with baseball? The green areas were lost to the, Head Attributed to Arsinoe II, depicted as an Egyptian divinity. Feeling the kingdom was now secure, Ptolemy shared rule with his son Ptolemy II by Queen Berenice in 285 BC. O the pharos. Laid out on a grid pattern, Alexandria occupied a stretch of land between the sea to the north and Lake Mareotis to the south; a man-made causeway, over three-quarters of a mile long, extended north to the sheltering island of Pharos, thus forming a double harbor, east and west. "Queen Arsinoë II, the Maritime Aphrodite and Early Ptolemaic Ruler Cult". While ruling Egypt, the Ptolemaic Dynasty built many Greek settlements throughout their Empire, to either Hellenize new conquered peoples or reinforce the area. Native Egyptians maintained power over local and religious institutions, and only gradually accrued power in the bureaucracy, provided they Hellenized. Fleeing into exile, Cleopatra would attempt to raise an army to reclaim the throne. A sign of the domestic weakness of his reign was the rebellions by native Egyptians that took away over half the country for over 20 years. [27] Early portraits of the Ptolemies featured large and radiant eyes in association to the rulers’ divinity as well as general notions of abundance.[40]. 8 terms. Ptolemy III Euergetes ("the Benefactor") succeeded his father in 246 BC. Few mutinies and revolts are recorded, and even rebellious troops would be placated with land grants and other incentives. [citation needed], The early Ptolemies did not disturb the religion or the customs of the Egyptians. Egypt had only three main Greek cities—Alexandria, Naucratis, and Ptolemais. Ptolemy III initiated construction on it on 23 August 237 BC. Yet if they had no place of political assembly, they often had their own gymnasium, the essential sign of Hellenism, serving something of the purpose of a university for the young men. 350 foot lighthouse located in Alexandria, Egypt. Estimated that the sun was 300 times larger than Earth- is actually 1.3 million times bigger than the Earth. itself lasting from 43 BCE until 332 BCE. During the interval between the death of Alexander and Ptolemy's assumption of the style of king, it even issued an autonomous coinage. That’s because it … Although Egypt was a prosperous kingdom, with the Ptolemies lavishing patronage through religious monuments and public works, the native population enjoyed few benefits; wealth and power remained overwhelmingly in the hands of Greeks. When Antigonus, ruler of Syria, tried to reunite Alexander's empire, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him. 20. influences; this became known as _____ culture. It was attached, in the administrative system, to the Saïte nome. He was lynched by the Alexandrian mob after murdering his stepmother, who was also his cousin, aunt and wife. Their naval forces met at Actium, where the forces of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa defeated the navy of Cleopatra and Antony. Ptolemy III had introduced an important innovation in 238 BC by holding a synod of all the priests of Egypt at Canopus. [23] For the first hundred and fifty years of its existence, the library drew the top Greek scholars from all over the Hellenistic world. Paul addressed what group of philosophers in 1st Corinthians? Ptolemaic art was produced during the reign of the Ptolemaic Rulers (304–30 BC), and was concentrated primarily within the bounds of the Ptolemaic Empire. 2, Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads, Prof. Jan Retso, Page: 301, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Ancient Egypt - Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt (332–30 bce)", http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/acha/hd_acha.htm, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/alex/hd_alex.htm, "Bronze statuette of Horus | Egyptian, Ptolemaic | Hellenistic | The Met", "Faience amulet of Mut with double crown | Egyptian, Ptolemaic | Hellenistic | The Met", "Marble head of a Ptolemaic queen | Greek | Hellenistic | The Met", "Statuette of Arsinoe II for her Posthumous Cult | Ptolemaic Period | The Met", "Army and Egyptian Temple Building Under the Ptolemies", "Egyptian Art During the Ptolemaic Period of Egyptian History", The Ptolemies, the Sea and the Nile: Studies in Waterborne Power, Novel Ptolemaic naval power: Arsinoë II, Ptolemy II, and Cleopatra VII’s innovative thalassocracies, "The Nile Police in the Ptolemaic Period", in: K. Buraselis – M. Stefanou – D.J. Because the monarchy remained staunchly Hellenistic, despite otherwise co-opting Egyptian faith traditions, religion during this period was highly syncretic. Became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. [41] Reflecting Greek preferences, the traditional table for offerings disappeared from reliefs during the Ptolemaic period, while male gods were no longer portrayed with tails, so as to make them more human-like in accordance with the Hellenistic tradition. [14] As a result, the Ptolemies established hunting stations and ports as far south as Port Sudan, from where raiding parties containing hundreds of men searched for war elephants. Greek mathematician and pioneer in geometry. What are some samples of opening remarks for a Christmas party? [4] Ruling for nearly three centuries, the Ptolemies were the longest and final Egyptian dynasty. Temples remained the focal point of social, economic, and cultural life; the first three reigns of the dynasty were characterized by rigorous temple building, including the completion of projects left over from the previous dynasty; many older or neglected structures were restored or enhanced. [35], In Ptolemaic art, the idealism seen in the art of previous dynasties continues, with some alterations. Greek scientistic, inventor, and mathematician. Hellenistic Period of Egypt Timeline (c. 332-30 B.C.) Beginning under Ptolemy I Soter, Macedonians and other Greeks were given land grants and allowed to settle with their families, encouraging tens of thousands of Greek mercenaries and soldiers to immigrate where they became a landed class of royal soldiers. "The Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BC)". The city enjoyed a calm political history under the Ptolemies. Traditionally, Ptolemaic royal siblings were married to one another on ascension to the throne. In his fight for control over Egypt, Ptolemy I had relied on a combination of imported Greek troops, mercenaries, native Egyptians, and even prisoners of war. In 44 BC, Caesar was murdered in Rome by several Senators. Koine Greek. Alexandria. Stoics. But Mr. Edgar has recently pointed out that the building connected with it was an Egyptian temple, not a Greek building. He arrived in Alexandria and easily defeated Mark Antony's remaining forces outside the city. In 332 BC, Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, invaded Egypt, which at the time was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire known as the Thirty-first Dynasty under Emperor Artaxerxes III. Alexander never returned to Egypt. Although the backpillar and the goddess's striding pose is distinctively Egyptian, the cornucopia she holds and her hairstyle are both Greek in style. The Ptolemies therefore limited the number of Greek city-states in Egypt to Alexandria, Ptolemais, and Naucratis. When Antiochus withdrew, the brothers agreed to reign jointly with their sister Cleopatra II. [4] The kingdom had a complex government bureaucracy that exploited the country's vast economic resources to the benefit of a Greek ruling class, which dominated military, political, and economic affairs, and which rarely integrated into Egyptian society and culture. Women are portrayed as more youthful, and men begin to be portrayed in a range from idealistic to realistic. They soon fell out, however, and quarrels between the two brothers allowed Rome to interfere and to steadily increase its influence in Egypt. A similar scholarly complex was the Museum (Mouseion, "hall of the Muses"). In 45 BC, Cleopatra and Caesarion left Alexandria for Rome, where they stayed in a palace built by Caesar in their honor. As an important trading post between Europe and Asia, it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. However, there are many examples of nearly identical sistrums and columns dating all the way to Dynasty 18 in the New Kingdom. Philip seized several islands and places in Caria and Thrace, while the battle of Panium in 200 BC transferred Coele-Syria from Ptolemaic to Seleucid control. Nevertheless, his ministers were able to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-Syria, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia in 217 BC secured the kingdom. In the 270s BC, Ptolemy II defeated the Kingdom of Kush in war, gaining the Ptolemies free access to Kushite territory and control of important gold deposits south of Egypt known as Dodekasoinos. [26] The influence of Greek art was shown in an emphasis on the face that was not previously present in Egyptian art and incorporation of Greek elements into an Egyptian setting: individualistic hairstyles, the oval face, “round [and] deeply set” eyes, and the small, tucked mouth closer to the nose. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. It became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization. The Greek blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian culture, which became known as the Hellenistic culture. Perdiccas appointed Ptolemy, one of Alexander's closest companions, to be satrap of Egypt. Philometor was succeeded by yet another infant, his son Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator. Aristarchus. [68] Notwithstanding an early crushing defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 306 BC, the Ptolemaic navy became the dominant maritime force in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean for the next several decades. Many rulers also promoted individual cults of personality, including celebrations at Egyptian temples. Thx4A2A, Anon. During his stay in the Alexandrian palace, he received 22-year-old Cleopatra, allegedly carried to him in secret wrapped in a carpet. Under Cleopatra, who sought to restore Ptolemaic power, Egypt became entangled in a Roman civil war, which ultimately led to its conquest by Rome as the last independent Hellenistic state. obervatory. The Romans, like the Ptolemies, respected and protected Egyptian religion and customs, although the cult of the Roman state and of the Emperor was gradually introduced. Following his death, Ptolemy took control of what was more or less Ancient Egypt and designated Alexandria as its capital. The Ptolemies drained the marshes of the Faiyum to create a new province of cultivatable land. Antiochus III the Great of The Seleucid Empire and Philip V of Macedon made a compact to seize the Ptolemaic possessions. In 312 BC, allied with Seleucus, the ruler of Babylonia, he defeated Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, in the battle of Gaza. Hellenistic. The Jews who lived in Egypt had originally immigrated from the Southern Levant. 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